The heartbreaking tales of 11 Commonwealth servicemen who died on the final day of World Warfare One have been revealed full with colourised footage and poignant letters house.
The final of the fallen included a soldier hit by a German machine gun who died simply three minutes earlier than the weapons fell silent at 11am on November 11, 1918, a century in the past on Sunday.
Among the males had survived Gallipoli and Passchendaele, solely to die of pneumonia on the final hurdle, whereas one other sufferer was a 20-year-old mortally wounded by a machine gun in a last-ditch German assault.
The lads had been unfold throughout the globe after they died, with one killed by a Bolshevik assault in Russia and one other succumbing to malaria in what’s now Israel. The tales embody poignant letters from the time, as one recruit instructed his mother and father that the ‘information is very good’ for an imminent peace earlier than he was killed by a shell.
Researchers from the Commonwealth Warfare Graves Fee who unearthed the servicemen’s tales consider that 860 British and imperial troops died on November 11, 1918, simply hours earlier than the tip of the battle.
Dr Glyn Prysor, the fee’s chief historian, stated: ‘It is a poignant statistic, however each identify carved on our headstones and memorials represents not only a dying but in addition a life. There have been households and communities internationally which might by no means be the identical.
‘This Remembrance Sunday is a chance to replicate on all those that died on the lengthy highway to peace and people they left behind. We have been honouring them for over 100 years, and the tip of the centenary of the First World Warfare is one other milestone in our work which continues at present, tomorrow and endlessly.’
Survivor of Gallipoli and Passchendaele felled by pneumonia: Sergeant Francis Coulam, Auckland Infantry Regiment, aged 27
Survivor of Gallipoli and Passchendaele: Francis Coulam was awarded the Navy Medal for his service
Born in New Zealand, Francis Coulam was the son of a sailmaker, had greater than a dozen brothers and sisters and labored as a storeman in Auckland earlier than the battle.
He enlisted in February 1915, aged 23, and was shipped out to Egypt as a part of the reinforcements for the British Empire’s efforts to grab the Gallipoli Peninsula, in a bid to interrupt the impasse in Europe.
Becoming a member of the first Battalion of the Auckland Infantry Regiment, he endured the blistering warmth of the Turkish peninsula and the fixed risks of sniping, shelling and illness.
Through the marketing campaign he needed to be evacuated to Egypt for hospital remedy for enteritis and irritation of bowels brought on by the unsanitary circumstances on the peninsula.
He rejoined his unit in July 1916, which by this time had moved to Armentieres, in France, the place he was wounded in motion and promoted to Lance Corporal.
Francis noticed motion throughout the Third Battle of Ypres, also called Passchendaele. On Four October, the New Zealand Division attacked the Bellevue Spur and suffered horrific casualties, the very best dying toll in New Zealand’s historical past.
He was awarded the Navy Medal for his half within the battle, with the quotation saying: ‘For conspicuous gallantry within the subject… [he] dealt with the lads below his command in a most succesful method and took half in numerous extreme combating, he himself accounting for a large number of the enemy with the bayonet.
‘He was cool and stage headed all through and let nothing hinder the advance of his platoon to the target.’
Francis was finally despatched again to New Zealand within the spring of 1918 and discharged in July, however on the final day of the battle he died of problems from influenza and pneumonia, aged 27.
He is buried in Auckland Waikumete Cemetery in Auckland.
Navy Cross hero killed in a German final stand: Ralph Piggot Whittington-Ince, 11th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment, aged 20
Navy Cross hero killed in a German final stand: Ralph Piggot Whittington-Ince
Ralph Piggott Whittington-Ince was the son of a vicar, born in Milan in March 1898 and educated in Shropshire earlier than passing by means of Sandhurst.
He was commissioned into the East Yorkshire Regiment in April 1916 and arrived for fight in France on February 1, 1917.
In November that yr he took half in an assault on the Western Entrance for which he was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross.
The quotation reads: ‘For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to obligation throughout a daylight raid. He led his platoon shut behind the barrage and penetrated 350 yards into the enemy’s assist line.
‘He introduced fast fireplace to bear on the fleeing enemy, driving them into our artillery barrage, and when the rest refused to return out of their dugouts, he had all of them blown up. He dealt with his platoon with nice ability each throughout the advance and withdrawal.’
On the early night of November 10, 1918, the Germans made a final stand in entrance of the village of Flobecq in Belgium.
Ralph, who was accountable for C Firm on the time, was badly wounded by machine-gun fireplace and died of his wounds the next day.
His Colonel paid tribute, saying: ‘He has executed such glorious work with the battalion. I can not inform you how a lot all of us really feel his dying; he has served so lengthy within the battalion and was cherished by all ranks.’
He’s commemorated in Vichte Navy Cemetery in Belgium.
Australian soldier who died within the desert: Trooper Lyle Jocelyn Chase, sixth Australian Mild Horse Regiment, aged 40
Australian trooper who died within the desert: Lyle Jocelyn Chase, who joined up along with his brother in 1917
Lyle Jocelyn Chase grew up on a sheep farm in New South Wales, Australia, earlier than enlisting in July 1917 alongside along with his brother William.
As ranchers, each brothers acknowledged a choice for service with the Australian Mild Horse and after a number of months of coaching in Sydney they had been despatched abroad.
They left for the Center East in March 1918, taking a ship to Palestine the place they each got here down with measles and wanted hospital remedy.
As soon as they arrived on land Lyle joined the sixth Australian Mild Horse Regiment close to Wadi Al-Auja, north of Jericho.
British and imperial forces in Palestine went on the offensive in September, and Lyle and William took half within the Allied victory on the Battle of Megiddo.
William was wounded and was evacuated again to hospital in Gaza, whereas Lyle continued the advance in the direction of Damascus.
Ottoman forces agreed an armistice in October 1918 however the Mild Horse remained within the desert, coaching and finishing up their day by day duties.
Whereas there Lyle was taken sick on November 2 and died of malaria and pneumonia 9 days afterward Armistice Day.
He’s buried in Ramleh Warfare Cemetery in what’s now Israel. William Chase survived to return house to his spouse and farm in Marrickville, New South Wales.
Garrison soldier struck down by Spanish flu in Bulgaria: Personal Ernest Shaw, 2nd Garr. Bn The King’s (Liverpool Regiment) 90570, aged 34
Garrison soldier struck down by Spanish flu in Bulgaria: Personal Ernest Shaw
Born in 1883 in Chorley, Lancashire, to cotton weaver James and Mary Shaw, Ernest was the second youngest of 4 kids.
After education he labored as a bottler with a neighborhood mineral water producer. In August 1911 he married Ellen Inexperienced and so they had a son, Thomas, born in 1913.
Through the battle he served with the third (Dwelling Service) Garrison Battalion of the Cheshire Regiment.
These had been models which regularly consisted of older males, maybe in lower than peak bodily situation, who had been unsuitable for entrance line service however may guard army bases and strategic places.
Ernest was then transferred to the 2nd Garrison Battalion, King’s (Liverpool Regiment), a part of the British Salonika Pressure serving on the Macedonia Entrance in northern Greece, combating towards the Bulgarians.
He hung out out and in of the entrance traces round Lake Doiran and after a serious Allied offensive in September 1918, Bulgaria grew to become the primary of the Central Powers to signal an armistice.
Simply because the combating was coming to an finish, influenza struck the British Salonika Pressure. In 4 months over 2,000 of their quantity had died of illness, a lot of them already weakened by malaria which had plagued these in Salonika all through the battle.
Ernest was a type of who succumbed to the ‘Spanish Flu’, and died on November 11, 1918. The flu would go on to ravage the war-torn nations within the months after the battle ended.
Shaw is buried in Kirechkoi-Hortakoi Navy Cemetery in Greece. Inscribed on his gravestone are the phrases: ‘Laid to relaxation in a distant land to reminiscence ever pricey’.
Welsh Guard who married simply weeks earlier than the Armistice: Lance Serjeant Frank Trott, 2/ Welsh Guards, aged 31
Welsh Guard who married simply weeks earlier than the Armistice: Lance Serjeant
Frank Trott was born in Bristol, and grew up on a farm in Butcombe, Somerset, earlier than transferring to Pontypridd, South Wales.
Earlier than the battle, he labored as a plate layer for a railway firm after which served with the Glamorgan Constabulary in Porthcawl.
In April 1915, he resigned – like many different cops from South Wales – to affix the newly-formed Welsh Guards.
Frank noticed motion within the Battle of Loos within the autumn of 1915, and continued to serve on the Western Entrance till the Welsh Guards joined the Battle of the Somme in September 1916, transferring into the newly-captured village of Ginchy.
Frank was wounded within the chest serving to to defend the village from a German counter-attack, and was handled at Rouen earlier than being evacuated again to Britain on 16 September.
After convalescing, Frank was posted to the 2nd (Reserve) Battalion, of the Welsh Guards, based mostly in Surrey, serving to to coach new recruits. Discharged to the reserve in June 1918, Frank moved again to Porthcawl and re-joined the police drive.
On October 21, 1918, Frank married Annie David in St. John’s Church, Newton Nottage. But their marriage would final lower than a month, after Frank succumbed to pneumonia which was sophisticated by the injuries he had acquired on the Somme.
He died on November 11, 1918, and was buried three days later within the churchyard of the church wherein he had been married only a few weeks earlier than.
Virtually the entire city turned out for the funeral, together with his police comrades, and plenty of wounded and ex-servicemen. He’s buried at Newton Nottage (St John the Baptist) Churchyard.
Soldier killed by a shell after telling mother and father of ‘awfully excellent news’: Second Lieutenant Noel Everard Evans, 121st Bty. 27th Bde. Royal Discipline Artillery, aged 29
Soldier killed by a shell after telling mother and father of ‘awfully excellent news’: Second Lieutenant Noel Everard Evans
Noel Evans was born in 1898 close to Wrexham. His father was Rev. Enoch Evans, a Church of England clergyman, and his mom Violet was the daughter of a retired Main of Dragoons Thomas Everard Hutton, who had been current on the Cost of the Mild Brigade in 1854, throughout the Crimean Warfare.
He started a level at Jesus School, Oxford, however left his research to affix the military, changing into a short lived Second Lieutenant with the Royal Discipline Artillery in July 1918.
His brother Morgan, who was awarded the Navy Cross for his actions in Italy early in 1918, was serving in the identical brigade.
Noel wrote house on October 5, 1918: ‘Very busy so can not write a lot, and there’s solely a candle to write down by as I’m down within the depth of the earth.
‘Having fairly an excellent time and I went as much as the gun line yesterday; they’d had an important day with the Boche. Morgan and I’ve succeeded very effectively in lacking one another ever since we first met.
‘His battery is alongside ours at current. I believe the information is very good: Bulgaria and Turkey given in: we cannot take lengthy at that charge!’
Nevertheless he didn’t reside to see the peace as on November 4, only a week earlier than the Armistice, Noel was critically wounded by a shell in a German barrage.
Noel was evacuated again to hospital in Rouen, the place the tip of hostilities meant that his mother and father may cross the Channel to go to him in hospital, however he died on November 11.
In a letter dated November 15, his father wrote: ‘It has been the toughest week to bear of my life… the suspense on the final second once we reached the hospital and the crushing phrases of the matron: “I’m afraid I’ve unhealthy information for you”.
‘We had been too late. He had handed away on Monday morning within the early hours, unusual to say simply concerning the time the armistice was signed!’
On their return house the Evans household acquired a letter from Noel’s Commanding Officer detailing precisely how Noel was wounded. It’s printed in full on the backside of the article.
Australian who signed up as quickly as he turned 18: Driver Richard Robert Moxham, Australian Military Service Corps, aged 20
Australian who signed up as quickly as he turned 18: Driver Richard Robert Moxham
Richard Moxham was born in Guildford, New South Wales, in 1898. Earlier than the battle he labored as an apprentice blacksmith and lived in Granville, on the outskirts of Sydney.
When he was simply 18 he married Alma Alexandra Moyle after which joined up for the military. He was so younger that his mother and father needed to give their consent, which they did.
Signing as much as combat he was posted abroad with the Australian Military Service Corps (AASC), arriving at Devonport, Plymouth, on Boxing Day 1917.
After months of coaching on Salisbury Plain, Richard lastly crossed to France in September 1918, becoming a member of a divisional practice simply west of the city of Peronne on October 3.
The divisional trains supplied transport, normally horse-drawn carts and wagons, together with provide columns which took all of the ammunition and provides wanted by a division from base depots to produce dumps.
On October 29, Richard reported sick and was admitted to the 12th Australian Discipline Ambulance struggling with influenza.
By November 5 he was in a hospital in Rouen and his situation had develop into crucial. On the final day of the battle he died of broncho-pneumonia, aged 20. He’s buried in Rouen.
Scottish soldier killed in a Bolshevik ambush in Russia: Corporal John Livingston, 2/10th Royal Scots, aged 23
Scottish soldier killed in a Bolshevik ambush in Russia: Corporal John Livingston
John Livingston, born in Glasgow in 1895, was the eldest son of George Livingston, a pit fireman at Dalmeny Crude Oil Firm, and Jane Livingston, of 5 Railway Cottages, Dalmeny.
He labored at a crude oil firm earlier than enlisting as a Personal within the 1/10th Royal Scots (Lewis Gun Part) in Could 1914, three months earlier than the battle broke out.
Arriving in France, he was posted to the 2nd Royal Scots and by April 1917 had earned a promotion to Lance Corporal.
His time on the Western Entrance was lower quick when he suffered a critical gunshot wound in his left thigh in September 1917, forcing him again to the UK the place he was declared unfit for front-line obligation.
As a substitute he was posted to the two/10th Royal Scots, with whom he went to Russia, the place Allied forces had been intervening within the nation’s civil battle and backing anti-Communist forces towards Lenin’s Bolsheviks.
He was promoted to Corporal in September 1918 however was killed in motion on November 11, throughout a Bolshevik assault on his blockhouse close to Troitsa, 200 miles south of Archangel on the River Dwina.
He has no identified grave and is commemorated on the CWGC Archangel Memorial in Russia.
Former barman who served from the beginning of the battle: Personal George Edwin Ellison, fifth (Royal Irish) Lancers, aged 40
Former barman who served from the beginning of the battle: Personal George Edwin Ellison
George Ellison labored as a barman in a pub in Hartlepool as a teen however he had joined the army by 1903, serving with the fifth (Royal Irish) Lancers.
The Lancers had been among the many first to reach in France when battle was declared in 1914, seeing motion south-east of Mons earlier than the tip of August.
George arrived in France shortly afterwards, after being known as up from the reserves, and was despatched to strengthen his unit.
The fifth Lancers suffered their first main casualties in late October and early November combating close to Ypres, and had been in motion once more throughout the Second Battle of Ypres in April and Could 1915.
With the onset of trench warfare, the cavalry had been pressured to dismount and function infantry, usually performing safety obligation behind the traces and performing as a reserve for the infantry.
After surviving a few of the earliest battles, George went on to serve all through the battle and was nonetheless on the battlefields on November 8, within the days earlier than the Armistice.
Cavalry was again in demand within the extra cellular warfare of the tip of the battle, and squadrons of the 5/Lancers had been hooked up to the Canadian Corps to behave as scouts for his or her advance into Belgium.
On the morning of November 11, the Lancers had been ordered to advance by means of Mons and over the canal to safe excessive floor round St. Denis.
At round 9.30am they had been crossing the canal when George was hit by German fireplace and killed. He’s buried in St Symphorien Navy Cemetery, simply exterior Mons.
George’s older brother Frederick Thomas Ellison was a skipper on a fishing vessel earlier than the battle and was known as as much as the Royal Naval Reserve on the outbreak of hostilities.
He served on board HM Trawler Towhee, transformed right into a minesweeper, spending a lot of the battle on escort and patrol obligation within the English Channel.
On June 15, 1917, the Towhee disappeared in English Channel. Frederick and his crew are commemorated on the Portsmouth and Chatham Naval Memorials. Frederick was 40 years previous, and left behind a spouse, Maud, and two sons.
Canadian soldier who ‘died at three minutes to eleven’ on the day of the Armistice: Personal George Lawrence Worth, 28th Bn. Canadian Infantry, aged 25
George Worth, whose service file states he died at three minutes to eleven on the day of the Armistice
George Worth grew up in Canada and labored as a farm labourer earlier than becoming a member of the military in October 1917 at Regina, Saskatchewan.
Despatched to affix Canadian forces in Europe, he arrived at Liverpool in February 1918. He was assigned to the 28th (Northwest) Battalion, Canadian Infantry and crossed the Channel later that yr.
On September 8, the battalion was at Buissy, close to Vis-en-Artois, when German artillery fired fuel and excessive explosive shells into the trenches.
George and several other others suffered from fuel inhalation, and had been taken to Etaples for remedy, however he rejoined the battalion in October prepared for the ultimate advance to the French-Belgian border.
On the evening of November 10-11 the 28th Battalion started transferring into the frontlines able to proceed the advance by means of the southern outskirts of Mons in the direction of the village of Havre and as much as the banks of the Canal du Centre.
At round 9am, as they helped to clear the Bois de Havre, phrase reached them that hostilities would stop that day at 11am.
Shortly earlier than 11am, George Worth was a part of a small group which crossed the canal to research homes on the far aspect.
After crossing the bridge, George was hit by a bullet within the chest, and died shortly afterwards. The battalion’s battle diary information George’s dying at roughly 10.50, whereas his service file states ‘three minutes to eleven’.
Considered one of George’s comrades Arthur Goodmurphy recounted what occurred almost 50 years later:
He was initially buried in Havre Outdated Communal Cemetery, however his grave was moved after the Second World Warfare to St. Symphorien Navy Cemetery.
19-year-old sailor who died in final assault on Belgian village: Ready Seaman Harold Edgar Walpole, Anson Battalion, Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, aged 19
19-year-old sailor who died in final assault on Belgian village: Ready Seaman Harold Edgar Walpole
Born in 1899, Harold Walpole labored for the Kettering Co-operative Clothes Manufacturing unit and was additionally concerned along with his native church, each as a bell-ringer and member of the Parish Church choir.
Through the battle Harold and his 4 brothers all enlisted, serving with varied regiments of the British Military. Harold joined up on 11 September 1917, two months after his 18th birthday.
He selected to affix the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve for service with the Royal Naval Division (RND). The RND was made up of sailors and marines who served on land as infantry.
After preliminary coaching Harold was drafted to the Anson Battalion in April 1918, which was holding the road north of the river Somme, close to the village of Beaumont-Hamel.
In August, he took half within the Allied advance which had begun at Amiens, attacking the village of Thilloy. Harold was wounded in the correct leg and evacuated however rejoined his unit in time for the Battle of the Canal du Nord in September, and additional combating close to Cambrai.
On November Eight the Anson Battalion superior into Belgium, simply east of the town of Valenciennes and two days later had been simply south of Mons after they got orders to seize Villers-Saint-Ghislain.
They attacked simply after midday on November 10, and German forces fought again fiercely, however had been finally defeated that night.
Through the assault the battalion suffered casualties of 64 wounded and ten killed, one in every of whom was Harold, who was mortally wounded. He died the next day, aged 19, because the weapons fell silent.
He’s buried in Nouvelles Communal Cemetery in France.
To entry the total checklist of tales featured within the CWGC Highway to Peace marketing campaign, go to the CWGC web site at www.cwgc.org
The CWGC is extraordinarily grateful to software program firm Shoothill, who freely colourised the pictures for Eleven for the Eleventh utilizing their state-of-the-art expertise, PhotoVamp.
‘We really feel we’ve misplaced an important good friend’: Poignant letter to fallen soldier Noel Evans’s mother and father from his commanding officer
Expensive Mr Evans,
On behalf of the officers, NCOs and males of the 121st Battery, I want to specific our deep sympathy with you all within the lack of your pricey son who, though he had solely been with us a short while, had gained the hearts of all the lads. We within the Mess really feel that we’ve misplaced an important good friend; he was all the time so cheery, it doesn’t matter what the circumstances had been.
We had been in relaxation for a number of days and had acquired orders to get ammunition as much as a place full East of Beaudiquies (a few mile SW of Le Quesnoy). Noel was accountable for the ammunition wagons on the evening of the 2nd Nov, and I’m afraid he had somewhat a foul time because the Hun was placing fairly plenty of machine gun bullets and shells everywhere in the space he needed to cowl. This didn’t upset him within the least, and after I noticed him within the morning he was very cheery and had handled it as somewhat a nice joke. On the morning of the third November, I stated to him ‘It’s essential to come as much as the weapons with us tonight and combat the final battle of the final battle’, and this he did.
We needed to occupy the place after darkish, because it was very uncovered, and from the time we received in till Noel was hit, we had a really unhealthy time. Shells and machine gun bullets merely rained on the place, and earlier than we opened fireplace in any respect we had misplaced a number of males, killed and wounded. We had been to open up a barrage at 5.30am however Noel was to do the second hour on obligation and so remained with me in what shelter we had. This was a scrape within the floor about 7′ x 7′ x 2′ deep with a tarpaulin drawn excessive.
Through the first hour we had a really thrilling time because the Hun put down his barrage on the battery as quickly as we opened, and stored it up for about 2 hours. Throughout the entire of this time he was lacking our little dug-out by inches; as soon as he hit the nook of it and lower the ‘paulin to ribbons, wounding two telephonists who had been with us.
The mother and father of Noel Evans acquired a letter from his commanding officer after he died on November 11. He was one of many British and Commonwealth servicemen who died on the final day of the battle, when crowds gathered in London (pictured) after listening to the information
At about 6.30 am Noel went on obligation and remained on the weapons until 7.30am. Quickly after this, at about 7.45am I ought to assume, I used to be standing exterior the dig-out and Noel walked in the direction of me and we stood chatting for a couple of minutes; then I returned to the dug-out and simply stood below the ‘paulin when a shell burst a number of yards away.
Our prepare dinner, who stood on the entrance of the dug-out, fell over on prime of us, shot although the neck, and I used to be busy bandaging him whereas Noel was introduced in. He seemed to be barely wounded within the left thigh and proper heel, and a tiny splinter was pulled out of the again of his head.
His thigh appeared to fret him probably the most, however the hit on the top had induced him to go briefly blind; this we put right down to concussion. His reminiscence, too, appeared a little bit impaired as he appeared to fret somewhat about me, and several other instances requested whether or not I had been hit. Every time I instructed him that I had not, however he appeared to overlook and requested once more.
The morning was very chilly and though we put blankets and coats over him, he nonetheless shivered an excellent deal. He appeared fairly himself proper as much as the time he left us and was very cheery. No one, after all, thought that he had been fatally wounded and we stated earlier than he left that we hoped quickly to see him again. We had been all very shocked once we heard of his dying, and couldn’t realise it for a very long time.
Noel was a really promising soldier, and just a few days earlier than he was hit, I had been urging him to use for an everyday fee. This he was going to do, however had not executed earlier than he left us. Let me once more say how deeply we really feel for you all in your bereavement. The data that he died gallantly doing his obligation is your comfort.
Yours very sincerely, L. Bonner.
Main L Bonner, 121st Battery, RFA